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PT-141: A “Lost” Treatment for Erectile Dysfunction?


We sometimes see men asking about PT-141 (bremelanotide) in ED discussion forums. Despite apparent interest, there doesn’t seem to be much information available.

We researched PT-141, and found three somewhat dated clinical studies1 2 3.

The conclusion seems to be that PT-141 was a promising treatment, with moderate, well-tolerated side effects. The most common reported side-effect was nausea.

In 2019, it was approved by the FDA as a treatment for premenopausal women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSSD)4, indicating that it is regarded as generally safe.

There has been no recent research on the effectiveness of PT-141 as a treatment for erectile dysfunction, and it is not generally considered as a first-line treatment for ED.

This may indicate that PT-141 was not regarded as sufficiently “better” than existing treatments to merit further development.

What is PT-141?

PT-141 is a peptide (a cyclic heptapeptide melanocortin analog) that primarily affects the nervous system. This may indicate that it is not an effective treatment for men with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction. However, patients who do not respond to PDE-5 inhibitors showed a statistically significant response to PT-141.

PT-141 can be administered as an injection, or as a nasal spray.

How to Buy PT-141

According to, “While PT-141 is widely available online, researchers may find that securing a reliable source of research-grade bremelanotide is challenging. Our team has found that many vendors claiming to offer high-quality PT-141 fall short of the mark.” recommends Peptide Sciences as a source for high-quality PT-141, but we have not verified their assessment.


  1. Diamond, L E ; Earle, D C ; Rosen, R C; Willett, M S; Molinoff, P B. “Double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetic properties and pharmacodynamic effects of intranasal PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy males and patients with mild-to-moderate erectile dysfunction.” International Journal of Impotence Research. Feb 2004;16(1):51-9.
  2. Molinoff, P B; Shadiack, A M; Earle, D; Diamond, L E; Quon C Y. “PT-141: a melanocortin agonist for the treatment of sexual dysfunction.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Jun 2003;994:96-102.
  3. Rosen, R C; Diamond, L E; Earle, D C; Shadiack, A M; Molinoff, P B. “Evaluation of the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of subcutaneously administered PT-141, a melanocortin receptor agonist, in healthy male subjects and in patients with an inadequate response to Viagra.” International Journal of Impotence Research. Apr 2004;16(2):135-42.
  4. Dhillon,Sohita ; Keam, Susan J. “Bremelanotide: First Approval.” Drugs. Sep 2019;79(14):1599-1606.

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